Double Bafta winner Colman is nominated for her roles in hit ITV crime series Broadchurch - which is also up for best drama serial - and gritty Channel 4 drama Run.
Glaswegian actress Rooney is in the running at the Royal Television Society (RTS) awards for her first major TV role on E4 show My Mad Fat Diary.
The show, based on a teenager's diary, is also up for best drama series, up against Peaky Blinders (BBC2) and Utopia (Channel 4).
Rooney, who was touring with a theatre education group when she received an email about trying out for the drama, almost turned down the audition.
She initially refused to read the script thinking it would be to play another "big girl" who is a bully or a victim.
Jodie Whittaker is also nominated for best actress, for her role alongside Colman in Broadchurch.
The best male actor award sees Idris Elba nominated for Luther, alongside Stephen Dillane for The Tunnel and Lennie James for Run.
EastEnders, which has been undergoing a revamp, has been snubbed in the soap and continuing drama category, where Casualty, Coronation Street and Emmerdale are up for the award.
Sir David Attenborough is up for best presenter for Sky show Galapagos 3D, alongside Stephen Fry for Stephen Fry - Out There and Davina McCall for Long Lost Family.
Gogglebox - the new Channel 4 show featuring people watching the week's TV - is up for best popular, factual and features, up against Lost Lost Family and Gadget Man.
The Wimbledon Men's Final is nominated for live event, against The Ashes and Bollywood Carmen Live.
Ant and Dec are up for best entertainment performance, for Britain's Got Talent and Saturday Night Takeaway, alongside Alan Carr for his Channel 4 chat show and Leigh Francis for Celebrity Juice and Through The Keyhole.
Richard III: King In The Car Park, on Channel 4, is up for best history, against Secrets From The Workhouse (ITV) and The Story Of The Jews (BBC2).
The RTS Programme Awards, presented by comedian Tim Vine, take place on March 18 in London.
Olivia Colman - Broadchurch (ITV)/Run (Channel 4)
Sharon Rooney - My Mad Fat Teenage Diary (Channel 4)
Jodie Whittaker - Broadchurch (ITV)
Stephen Dillane - The Tunnel (Sky Atlantic)
Idris Elba - Luther (BBC1)
Lennie James - Run (Channel 4)
Imagine...Vivian Maier: Who Took Nanny's Pictures? (BBC1)
Inside The Mind of Leonardo (Sky Arts)
Rebuilding The World Trade Center (Channel 4)
Dumping Ground (CBBC)
The Ugly Duckling (CBeebies)
Absolute Genius with Dick and Dom (CBBC)
Hard Times - A Newsround Special (CBBC)
Rebecca Front - Psychobitches (Sky Arts)
Brendan O'Carroll - Mrs Brown's Boys (BBC1)
Ryan Sampson - Plebs (ITV2)
Four Rooms Boundless for (Channel 4)
Pointless Remarkable Television, Endemol for (BBC1)
The Chase (ITV)
Educating Yorkshire Twofour Broadcast for (Channel 4)
Her Majesty's Prison: Aylesbury (ITV)
The Call Centre (BBC3)
In The Flesh BBC Drama Production Salford, BBC America for BBC Three
Top Of The Lake See-Saw Films for (BBC2)
My Mad Fat Teenage Diary A Tiger Aspect Production for (E4)
Peaky Blinders Caryn Mandabach Productions, Tiger Aspect Productions for (BBC2)
Utopia Kudos for (Channel 4)
A League Of Their Own (Sky 1)
Ant & Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway (ITV)
The Last Leg (Channel 4)
Alan Carr - Alan Carr: Chatty Man (Channel 4)
Ant & Dec - Britain's Got Talent/Ant & Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway (ITV)
Leigh Francis - Celebrity Juice/Through The Keyhole (ITV)
Richard III: King In The Car Park (Channel 4)
Secrets From The Workhouse (ITV)
The Story Of The Jews (BBC2)
Game Of Thrones (Sky Atlantic)
Storyville - Pussy Riot: A Punk Prayer (BBC4)
The Returned (Haut et Court for Channel 4)
Bollywood Carmen Live (BBC3)
The Ashes - 2013 (Sky Sports)
Wimbledon Men's Final (BBC1)
Popular, Factual and Features
Gadget Man (Channel 4)
Gogglebox (Channel 4)
Long Lost Family (ITV)
Sir David Attenborough - Galapagos 3D with David Attenborough (Sky 3D/Sky 1)
Stephen Fry - Stephen Fry: Out There (BBC2)
Davina McCall - Long Lost Family (ITV)
Science and Natural History
How To Win The Grand National (Channel 4)
Planet Ant: Life Inside the Colony (BBC4)
A Touch Of Cloth II: Undercover Cloth (Sky 1)
Toast Of London (Channel 4)
Dogging Tales (Channel 4)
The Murder Trial (Channel 4)
The Unspeakable Crime: Rape (BBC1)
Burton and Taylor (BBC4)
Our Girl (BBC1)
The Challenger (BBC2)
Soap and Continuing Drama
Coronation Street (ITV)
Sports Presenter, Commentator or Pundit
Clare Balding - C4 Racing (Channel 4)
Gabby Logan - World Athletics (BBC1)/(BBC2)
Gary Neville - Sky Sports (Sky Sports)
Andy Murray: The Man Behind the Racquet (BBC1)
FA Cup Final (ITV)
World Athletics - Mo Farah's Double Gold Win (BBC1)
James Corden and Mathew Baynton - The Wrong Mans (BBC2)
Sam Leifer and Tom Basden - Plebs (ITV)2
Writing Team - Psychobitches (Sky Arts)
Chris Chibnall - Broadchurch (ITV)
Dennis Kelly - Utopia (Channel 4)
Marlon Smith and Daniel Fajemisin-Duncan - Run (Channel 4)