The Edinburgh-based group made a pre-tax loss of £6 million in 2012, compared with a deficit of £2.2m in the preceding year following a big increase in administrative costs.
It generated turnover of £374.3m in 2012 from services which it says include cheque-cashing, short-term lending, retail currency exchange and buying gold and phones.
Cheque Centres had £317.7m turnover in 2011.
In the latest accounts, directors said the group had continued to expand in the UK after more than doubling its stores count in 2011. "New stores take between 12 and 24 months to reach profitability," wrote directors.
The average number of employees was 1364 in 2012, up from 927 in 2011.
Directors added: "It is the intention of the group in 2013 to drive performance of the store portfolio by focusing on growth through promotion of the brand and product ranges."
Firms that provide short-term loans have come under intense scrutiny amid claims some are exploiting people in financial need.
Directors of Cheque Centres Group said people wishing to buy its consumer lending products must meet "strict internal underwriting standards". They said the company has robust internal controls to ensure legislation is adhered to.
The highest-paid director received emoluments of £594,000 in 2012, compared with £226,000 in 2011.
Cheque Centres Group is owned by Ohio-registered CNG Holdings.