The firm earns several hundred million pounds from its 19 million UK customers but shared none of these with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC), an investigation found.
The company said its corporation tax liabilities in its home country were offset through investment in improving its network and by interest costs.
The group has previously been criticised for its dealings with the taxman after its £1.2 billion settlement of a decade-long dispute with HMRC in 2010.
Underlying earnings at Vodafone's British operation rose from £1.2bn to £1.3bn in the year to the end of March, while adjusted profits rose 16% to £402 million. Yet its corporation tax bill fell from £140m to zero.
Vodafone said its UK capital investment increased to £575m from £516m in the year, meaning it spent more than £1.5m every day on improving its network and IT systems.
Its UK business accounts for less than 4% of group profits and it paid the exchequer about £700m in payroll and other taxes last year.
A Vodafone spokesman said: "As in most countries, there are tax reliefs for capital investment and interest costs in the UK, which applied in this case.
"We paid £14bn into the public purse worldwide in 2011 if one includes payroll and sales taxes as well as fees for radio spectrum."
Vodafone's global corporation tax bill rose by about £300m to £2.3bn last year, which is in line with other British multinationals.