The survey, published yesterday by the Confederation of British Industry, also showed a significant improvement in UK manufacturers' overall and export order books.
Of the 413 manufacturers which responded to the CBI's latest monthly industrial trends survey, which was conducted between July 24 and August 14, 37% reported a rise in output volumes in the latest three months and only 21% had suffered a decline, with the remainder experiencing an unchanged position.
Meanwhile, 38% projected an increase in output volumes over the next three months, with only 13% anticipating a decline.
The CBI described the strong rise in output volumes over the three months to August as "very broad-based", with 12 of 16 sub-sectors reporting a rise and only two reporting a fall.
It added there had been particularly strong growth in a number of smaller sectors, including building materials, metal manufacture and electrical goods.
The CBI, meanwhile, observed that its survey showed UK manufacturers' total and export order books had risen to their highest levels since August 2011 and June 2012 respectively. Samuel Tombs, UK economist at consultancy Capital Economics, said: "August's UK CBI industrial trends survey provides another indication that the manufacturing sector is recovering at a fair lick."
However, he added: "We still worry that the manufacturing recovery will lose some pace later this year.
"The recent upturn has been driven by stronger demand for consumer goods. But the pick-up in household spending has been based on shaky foundations insofar as it has reflected a sharp fall in saving, rather than a rise in real incomes."
Although expressing this reservation, he also highlighted the "decent improvement" in export orders signalled by the CBI survey and observed that the conditions for a sustained recovery in manufacturing "seem to be falling into place".
Stephen Gifford, CBI director of economics, said: "Manufacturers have seen a real upturn in fortunes this quarter, as output grew at its fastest pace for two years.
"Domestic and export orders have rebounded almost across the board, and manufacturers expect this strength to continue during the next three months."
He added: "UK manufacturers seem to be experiencing a build-up in momentum, but risks in the global economy still mean that it won't be plain-sailing for some time to come."