Mr Anderson has become one of the most well known faces at Edinburgh fund manager Baillie Gifford since taking over the trust in 2006. He has built a concentrated portfolio focused on emerging markets and technology stocks.
When he leaves in July, Tom Slater, who has been his deputy on the trust since 2009, will oversee the fund.
A Baillie Gifford spokesman said: "James Anderson will be taking a six-month sabbatical from July 2013 to write a book on growth investing.
"James will return to his previous roles at Baillie Gifford on his return."