A race between mobile providers to outperform their competitors could see better network coverage for customers throughout the UK, a report has suggested.
EE came out on top overall when tested on reliability, speed and internet usage, calls and texts, in a report by network testing firm RootMetrics, ahead of Three, Vodafone and 02.
Report author Patrick Linder said EE "continues to shine" but added that other networks are catching up, meaning the potential for better performance in the future.
Networks were assessed on their coverage across the UK generally, in each of the four individual nations, and then in 16 cities in the first half of this year.
Vodafone came last for mobile internet performance in Scotland, England, and Northern Ireland, while 02 took the bottom spot in Wales.
EE, the first network to launch 4G in the UK, was in the top spot in most of the 16 cities tested, including Edinburgh, Belfast, Birmingham, and Cardiff, bettering last year's performance.
Vodafone improved in the first half of this year to tie second place with 02 for call performance, while Three moved to the bottom in this category.
Both 02 and Vodafone have improved their performances "substantially" since last year the report said.
"While EE continues to dominate with strong performance at all levels across the UK-especially when it comes to speed-the other networks are on the march," the report published on rootmetrics.com stated.
"Three is starting to make a showing across the board, and Vodafone and O2 are building momentum. The good news: Better network performance across the UK means a better experience across all the points of your mobile life."