Theresa May has been urged to grow up and develop a plan to ensure Brexit succeeds, as she pledged to give MPs further debates.
Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn said European leaders have warned him the tone taken by the Government has "damaged our global reputation" and lost the country "a lot of goodwill" from other nations.
He warned the Prime Minister against "threats, hectoring or lecturing" of the EU.
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Mrs May stopped short of offering a vote to MPs over Brexit although she said there will be a "series of general debates" on the UK's future relationship with the EU before and after Christmas.
These will include talks on the "high level principles" to be pursued by the Government, Mrs May added.
Responding to Mrs May's statement on last week's European Council summit, Mr Corbyn explained he also met socialist leaders and their counterparts in Brussels.
He said: "The message that came to me loud and clear from European leaders last week was the tone taken by this Tory Government since their Tory party conference earlier this month has damaged our global reputation and lost us a lot of goodwill - not just in Europe but around the world.
"Although the Prime Minister's words may have appeased hard-line voices behind her, they only spread anger and resentment all across Europe by the approach she and her party have taken.
"I do not believe we'll get the best deal for this country by using threats, hectoring or lecturing of the European Union.
"For these negotiations to succeed, the Government frankly needs to adopt a slightly more grown up approach.
"For the negotiations to succeed, Britain needs a plan.
"What is clear to everybody - from European leaders, non-governmental organisations and business - is that quite clearly the Government doesn't have one."
In her reply, Mrs May joked to Mr Corbyn: "You talked at the beginning of your response to my statement that you'd been over to Brussels last Thursday, meeting with various socialist leaders who were listening to you.
"I suppose from your point of view it's good to know that somebody is listening to you."
She also said "a number" of European leaders had been "commending" her speech at the Tory party conference.
SNP MPs could be heard shouting "name them".
Mrs May went on: "Including I have to say, one or two of the socialist leaders who might have been talking to (Mr Corbyn) at the time."
She added to Mr Corbyn: "You say we don't have a plan. We have a plan, which is not to set out at every stage of these negotiations the details of those negotiations because that would be the best way to ensure we didn't get the best deal for the UK."
Mrs May questioned Labour's stance on free movement, claiming Mr Corbyn wants "unfettered immigration" into the UK.
In her opening statement, the PM confirmed: "The Government will also give Parliament the opportunity to discuss our approach to leaving the European Union.
"So in addition to regular updates from (Brexit Secretary David Davis), my own statements following council meetings and the deliberations of the new select committee on exiting the EU, the Government will make time available for a series of general debates on the UK's future relationship with the EU.
"These will take place before and after the Christmas recess and I expect will include debate on the high level principles the Government will pursue in the negotiations."
Mr Corbyn labelled this "some sort of concession" as he criticised the "chaotic Brexit".
Mrs May also reiterated: "I want the deal we negotiate to reflect the kind of mature, cooperative relationship that close friends and allies enjoy.
"A deal that will give British companies the maximum freedom to trade with and operate within the European market and allow European businesses to do the same here.
"A deal that will deliver the deepest possible cooperation to ensure our national security and security of our allies.
"A deal that's in Britain's interests and the interests of all our European partners.
"But it'll also be a deal that means we are a fully independent sovereign nation able to do what sovereign nations do, which means we will, for example, be free to decide for ourselves how we control immigration."
EU leaders also discussed Russia's role in the Syria conflict and the fallout of mass migration in Europe at the Brussels summit last week, Mrs May said.
She criticised Jeremy Corbyn for failing to condemn Russia's actions in Syria when responding to her statement.
"I note that although the European Council discussed the role that Russia was taking in indiscriminate bombing in Syria, the leader of the opposition failed to refer to Russia and its actions in Syria when he came to the despatch box," she said.
"I hope he will not be too slow in coming forward and making clear that he does condem Russia's activities. Otherwise people will assume that he doesn't."