Nicola Sturgeon has accused the Tories of committing "daylight rural robbery", as she highlighted the impact the loss of European funds would have on some remote communities.
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She warned this, coupled with the impact of possible trade tariffs, is a "real concern" for rural communities.
Scotland is currently entitled to 16.5% of UK funding - totalling some £500 million a year - from the Common Agricultural Policy, Ms Sturgeon said, adding: "A different formula would potentially devastate farming and food production in our rural communities.
"Just like with our fishing community - farming is but a small pawn in the Tories' reckless game of politics and the Tories should feel a duty to provide funding guarantees beyond Brexit for these sectors in their manifesto.
"On June 8 a vote for the SNP is a vote to stand up for Scotland's interests and those of our vital farming communities in the face of the Tories' chaotic hard Brexit negotiations, which pose the biggest challenge to farming in Scotland in at least our generation."
Ms Sturgeon, who visited Moffat and Stranraer, stressed the importance such smaller towns play in Scotland's economy.
She said: "Rural Scotland is a massive economic success story. Our agriculture, our food and drink industries, and the tourism that they help drive are at the very heart of our economy.
"But rural Scotland also faces real risks from an unopposed Tory government. Rural Scotland is much more reliant on our links with Europe than agriculture in the rest of the UK - and losing EU funding will have a disproportionate impact on Scottish agriculture.
"This, coupled with the detrimental effects of potential trading tariffs, is a real concern for our farming communities, many of which trade primarily with the EU.
"Scotland is still due £160 million of EU convergence funding that the UK only qualified for because of the high concentration of farmers in areas of Scotland - however the Tories continue to withhold this vital funding that rural Scotland deserves.
"It's daylight rural robbery - and is yet another example of vital funding streams that will go missing after Brexit.
"The Tories are only guaranteeing current farm funding to the end of the next Westminster parliament. What about the rest and what happens in the future? There is no guarantee that Scotland will get its fair share."