Martin Hughes, Edward McVeigh, Anton Duffy, Paul Sands and Stacy McAllister are also alleged to have conspired to murder.
They are charged with planning between February 1 and October 23 at a property on Old Castle Road, Cathcart, Glasgow to commit acts of terrorism.
They are all accused of plotting to carry out a terrorist campaign in the UK.
It is alleged they tried to get a hold of firearms and explosives with a view to carrying out terrorist offences, including "damage to property and murder of civilians".
A convoy of police motorbikes, police cars and vans were used to bring each of the accused to and from the court.
They each appeared separately in private at Glasgow Sheriff Court where they made no plea or declaration and were remanded in custody by Sheriff Ian Miller.
They are due to appear next week for full committal.
The five accused were detained at several locations in Scotland on October 23.
The operation was led by Police Scotland and also involved the Police Service of Northern Ireland and the security services.
After the operation, Police Scotland said it had focused on the "activities of individuals sympathetic to dissident Republicanism, but who are not affiliated to any specific group".
All five people had been held at the Scottish Terrorist Detention Centre in the Govan area of Glasgow.
Police were granted an extended detention period under the Terrorism Act on October 25.