Home Office immigration enforcement officers and police caught the offenders while making immigration checks on businesses in Wishaw, North Lanarkshire, on Friday evening.
At Keystore, on Stewarton Street, an Indian man aged 21, who had breached the conditions of his visa by working without permission, and a 23-year-old Indian man who had overstayed his visa were arrested, the Home Office said.
Two more Indian men, aged 28 and 34, were arrested at the Pink Turban Indian restaurant on Wishaw Road.
The 28-year-old had breached the conditions of his visa by working in excess of his permitted hours and the 34-year-old had overstayed his visa.
A 42-year-old Pakistani man who had also overstayed his visa was arrested for working illegally at Hillcrest Food & Wine on Hillcrest Avenue.
All are currently in Home Office detention while steps are taken to remove them from the country.
Adam Scarcliffe, from Home Office immigration enforcement, said: "Illegal working undercuts honest employers, defrauds the public purse and cheats legitimate job hunters out of employment opportunities.
"The message to those who choose to ignore the rules is clear. We will find you and you will face a heavy financial penalty."
Each business will be issued with a notice of potential liability of up to £10,000 per illegal worker - a potential £20,000 for Keystore and the Pink Turban and £10,000 for Hillcrest Food & Wine.