Gurnam Singh, 30, was jailed for seven years and Sukhdev Singh, 36, for five years. They were placed on the sex offenders register and will be deported to India at the end of their prison terms.
The pair were found guilty of rape at the High Court in Glasgow in October. Gurnam was also found guilty of a sexual assault on the woman.
The two men had come recently to Scotland to work as priests.
Their victim, 26, said she was approached by the men who tried to kiss her, but she told them she was not working and walked off. The pair followed her and trapped her in Midland Street, where they pushed her into a doorway close to the Arches nightclub.
A cyclist eventually rescued the woman.