The Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland (Acpos) said forces are holding a day of action today, with the aim of making the country's roads safer by catching out "inappropriate drivers".
As well as speeders, officers will be targeting uninsured and unlicensed drivers, those without seatbelts or those illegally using mobile phones.
They will also be on the lookout for vehicles which are not fit for the road.
Superintendent Denise Mulvaney of Lothian and Borders Police said there was a clear link between speeding and fatal and serious crashes.
Acpos has set a road fatality reduction target of 30% by 2015, and 40% by 2020. It hopes to reduce serious casualties from road accidents by 43% by 2015.
The association said it is also seeking to cut child fatalities by 35% in the next two years. Ms Mulvaney said: "We know that almost 115,000 speeding offences were recorded in Scotland in 2010/11, which represents over a third of all motor vehicle offences."
"Speeding is dangerous, costly and unacceptable.
"In every case of speeding or inappropriate driving, offenders are potentially putting their lives and the lives of others at risk – this is unacceptable.
"I would encourage all road users to respect the speed limits and drive appropriately for the road conditions and surroundings."