Prof Hugh Pennington, emeritus professor in bacteriology at Aberdeen University, also questions whether the next big scientific breakthrough could be jeopardised by a Yes vote in next year's referendum.
The Scottish Government last night insisted Scotland's "unrivalled record" in attracting research funding would continue after independence.
Prof Pennington, writing in today's Herald, raises concerns about what impact independence would have on Scottish universities. He is part of a group, Academics Together, a pro-UK arm of the Better Together campaign which is to be launched at the BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre at Glasgow University today.
"We are a nation of innovators," he said. "Scotland is respected around the globe for our creativity, our ingenuity and the ground-breaking research we do. Over the years, the outstanding contribution of Scots in the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics and physiology have been recognised with numerous Nobel Prizes - most recently, Prof Higgs."
Prof Pennington argues devolution is "delivering" for Scotland's universities.
He added: "Right now we can have the best of both worlds: a strong and successful Scottish Parliament with powers over education policy, together with the strength of being part of a larger, thriving UK research community". Scottish universities also benefit from a "disproportionate share" of funding, he said.