Glasgow City Council believes the higher standards are partly down to a decision to target poor teachers, with those unsuited to the job moved into non-teaching roles.
Attendances have also improved and exclusions have been reduced.
The summary of the inspectors' investigations suggests the city's schools are closing the gap with those in other parts of Scotland.
Since 2008, the number of schools graded very good or excellent has risen from 27% to 50%. Those rated good or better have risen from 72% to 87%, while 96% of schools are now rated satisfactory or better, compared to 91% in 2008.
There have also been rises in the proportion of pupils passing Standard Grade and Higher exams. In addition, the number of pupils excluded for violent incidents has dropped again, by 17%, down from 3450 to 2857, the lowest figure on record.
For generations, Glasgow pupils have been outperformed by counterparts across Scotland. The situation exists because many Glasgow schools deal with a catalogue of social issues linked to poverty.
On average, 30% of pupils are on free school meals – a key indicator of poverty – compared to just 15% elsewhere.
This was shown dramatically in 2010, when The Herald reported on one class of P7 children in a school in the city's east end, where 21 pupils out of 24 were identified as having significant additional needs, ranging from parents with drug and alcohol problems to having to cope with domestic violence and family suicide.
There has also been an influx of immigrants, whose children require extra help as they speak little or no English.
Glasgow still falls behind the national average on school attainment, but the improvements have been welcomed. Maureen McKenna, the council's executive director of education, said targeting teacher incompetence was one of many strategies that had been put in place.
The council has invested in training to improve teaching quality. Schools are also encouraged to make use of computer tracking of pupils to highlight those at risk of dropping out or of slipping behind in terms of their potential.
Mrs McKenna said: "We are committed to continuing to improve by concentrating on what makes a difference in the classroom."
Stephen Curran, the council's executive member for education, added: "With increased attendance, reductions in exclusions and attainment across the board at an all-time high, Glasgow is constantly driving up standards in education and we are really starting to see the benefits."
A spokesman for the Educational Institute of Scotland said: "It is encouraging both teachers and pupils are giving their all and delivering such positive educational outcomes."
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