The call follows claims of two-tier working practices with overseas staff being paid less and denied the same employment rights as staff employed in Scotland.
In recent years, Scottish universities have developed campuses and partnerships across the world.
However, recent concerns have emerged given that countries such as Dubai do not permit trade union membership.
Other concerns centre on the lack of maternity and paternity leave and the fact there is no consultation over redundancies.
Homosexual relationships and sex outside marriage are also illegal in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which can be dealt with via prosecution, imprisonment, fines or deportation.
Mary Senior, Scottish official for the UCU lecturers' union, called for institutions and the Scottish Government to ensure there was a level playing field for staff employed by universities wherever they worked.
"We very much welcome the fact we have world-class universities in Scotland that are able to share and collaborate at an international level with knowledge, education and research," she said. "However, this internationalisation agenda does bring with it implications for employment rights and human rights which cannot be ignored.
"We are concerned at the creation of a two-tier workforce, where staff employed by a Scottish institution, but based at an overseas campus, have different rights, different pay rates and different terms and conditions from staff based in Scotland."
She said it was "particularly concerning" that staff working for Heriot-Watt University in the UAE lacked the same rights to maternity and paternity leave and pay.
"In addition, given that trade unions are banned in the UAE, staff employed by Heriot-Watt University, but working in the Dubai campus, are simply not covered by the very positive negotiating, consultation and partnership working arrangements that exist for staff in the Scottish campuses."
A spokesman for the Educational Institute of Scotland union added: "No employee of any Scottish further or higher education institution, no matter where they are based, should be subject to any form of discrimination based on gender, ethnic origin, age, religion, disability or sexual orientation.
"All Scottish institutions should work with both representative organisations and government to ensure all employees are treated fairly."
A spokeswoman for Universities Scotland, which represents the sector, said: "A key priority for universities with overseas campuses is to work to ensure the quality of education and wider support on offer matches that delivered in Scotland. Universities work as hard as possible within the legal and cultural parameters of the host country to ensure this is the case."
This weekend, UCU will be highlighting the inconsistencies at the inaugural STUC Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Conference. A motion states: "While generally welcoming the sharing of knowledge, education and research across the globe, conference is concerned at some of the implications of this internationalisation agenda on employment rights and human rights."
Heriot-Watt's £35 million Dubai campus was opened by First Minister Alex Salmond in November last year. The global expansion of Scottish higher education has also seen Glasgow Caledonian University open a nursing college in Bangladesh, while Edinburgh Napier has a biofuel research centre in Hong Kong and Strathclyde has opened a campus in India.
A spokeswoman from Heriot-Watt said: "In all our international activities, we work with local cultures and legislation, but provide consistent student support services and employment terms and conditions to staff. The university is committed to supporting its staff and students to a high standard across the institution and above the legal minimum."
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