Perth and Kinross Council, backed by Scottish ministers, has approved special exemptions to Scotland's "right to roam" law to restrict public access to land at Auchterarder next to the tournament course.
The restrictions start coming into force tomorrow, though the Ryder Cup is not due to begin until September 23.
Ramblers and local residents are outraged that they are being barred from popular footpaths and common land just because they might get a glimpse of the Ryder Cup. The restrictions on public access are draconian and create a dangerous precedent, they say.
"It is ridiculous that the public are being told that they cannot use their statutory rights of access to walk on land well outside the boundaries of the Gleneagles golf course simply because it might provide them with a view of a couple of holes on the Ryder Cup course," said Dave Morris, the director of Ramblers Scotland. "What next? Are the public going to be told they cannot walk up hills near to football stadiums or shinty grounds in case they get a view of the action on the nearby pitch?"
Morris accused the Ryder Cup organisers of wanting to introduce "American-style" access bans in contrast to the more relaxed arrangements at the Commonwealth Games. "The arrangements being put in place at Gleneagles appear to be closer to a Scottish version of Alcatraz," he said.
Police are also planning a "ring of steel" around the Ryder Cup to prevent terror attacks, although Chief Onspector Mike Whitford, area commander for Perth and Kinross, said: "There is certainly no indication that there is any significant threat or risk."
Sandra Murray, a retired tourist officer, has walked her dogs on Auchterarder golf course, next to the Ryder Cup course at Gleneagles, for more than 32 years. "I am so annoyed that a golf company can come along and close down so much land for so long," she told the Sunday Herald.
She pointed out that the G8 summit of world leaders was held at Gleneagles in 2005 without having to close off land at Auchterarder. "They keep saying it's for safety and security, but I would have thought that presidents and prime ministers were much more of a security risk than a few golfers," she said.
Murray made a formal objection to the restrictions, but without effect. "As far as I'm concerned nobody is going to stop me or anyone from walking," she declared. "I'm not against the Ryder Cup being held at Gleneagles. I just don't like the restrictions on people trying to walk their dogs or just walk."
The land rights campaigner, Andy Wightman, has also criticised the restrictions as a gross overreaction. Auchterarder golf course is common land that belonged to local people, he said. "Commons are for the people and not for corporate elites," he insisted.
The backers and organisers of the Ryder Cup accepted that it would cause disruption to local residents, but argued that this would be dwarfed by the huge economic benefits it would bring.
"As with any large event of this nature there will always be some disruption to local residents but the long-term tourism and economic benefits will far outweigh the short-term inconvenience," said a spokesman for tourism agency VisitScotland.
The organisers, Ryder Cup Europe, recalled that there had been similar restrictions at previous events in Wales and Ireland. "Some access restrictions need to be in place to protect the site," said a spokesman.
According to Perth and Kinross Council, the Ryder Cup is expected to attract 45,000 spectators each day and a TV audience of 600 million in 183 countries. "The closures are necessary to ensure the access to the event is strictly monitored and co-ordinated by the event organisers," said a council spokeswoman.
The Scottish Government confirmed that it had approved exemptions to access rights "on the grounds of safety and security in order to stage the Ryder Cup at Gleneagles".