Nibbles was targeted in Cambuslang, South Lanarkshire, and left with a pellet lodged in its throat.
The pellet was discovered during an x-ray when the cat's owners took her to the vet after she returned home last Thursday bleeding from the nose and mouth.
Scottish SPCA said Nibbles was lucky to survive what appears to have been a malicious airgun attack.
Chief Superintendent Mike Flynn said: "We are very concerned to hear of yet another mindless airgun attack. Anyone who thinks it's acceptable to use an airgun in this way has no consideration for the welfare of others and should not be in possession of such a weapon."
The animal charity said the Scottish Government should implement a planned licensing system for airguns "as a matter of urgency".