While the main cause of death in youngsters aged one to 18 is injury, more than 1000 children a year die from or with a major illness.
The report, commissioned by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH), examined deaths of all children excluding babies under 12 months.
It found deaths in childhood from all causes declined in all age groups and UK countries between 1980 and 2010 by 50% to 70%.
After injury, most deaths are caused by blood problems or cancer, with children also dying from or with neurological conditions, congenital abnormalities such as heart defects, metabolic disorders, infections and respiratory problems.
Injuries account for 31% of deaths in one to four-year-olds and nearly half (48%) of deaths in teenagers aged 15 to 18. Injuries were most often caused by car crashes.
The proportion of deaths caused by injury rises steeply with age, accounting for 58% to 74% of deaths in 18-year-olds. Boys aged 15 to 18 are also three times more likely to die from injury than girls in the same age group.
The report found in 2010 alone, 1935 child deaths occurred, with 57% in children aged 10 to 18 and 42% aged one to nine.
Researchers found 60% to 70% of children who died had a chronic condition. .