Victoria Infirmary has now been given one month to sort out the problems in six areas identified by health inspectors as needing improvement.
The unannounced inspection found dirty patient equipment and issues with disposal of used materials.
Hazards included needles protruding from bins, soiled incontinence pads not disposed of correctly and staff tying up clinical waste without wearing gloves.
Dirty bed frames, bed control panels and intravenous drip stands were also found in the hospital's elderly assessment ward south 2.
Patient hoists on the ward were also "contaminated and dusty" and a chair weighing scale was unclean.
Across all wards, eight out of 17 commodes inspected were not clean and inspectors also discovered badly stained mattresses.
The hospital had previously been told to improve infection control procedures following an audit in May, which had been brought forward by six months due to issues in a previous probe and followed two unrelated cases of Clostridium difficile.
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde said it would immediately tackle the issues identified.
The Healthcare Environment Inspectorate (HEI) inspection, which was carried out on July 23 and 24, resulted in a report that said: "During the inspection, we found that over a period of time, there were recurring issues on ward south 2 with cleanliness of patient equipment, sharps and waste management. "
Rory Farrelly, the health board's acute director of nursing said: "We are extremely disappointed and concerned. We have already take steps to ensure that patient equipment is clean and ready for use, and have addressed the issues raised in connection with ward 2.
"We have also put in place a comprehensive action plan to ensure the other requirements are addressed."