Doctors said mortality from MS, which is thought to be linked to environmental and genetic factors and has consistently high rates in Scotland, had fallen by around 3% every year over the past 20 years.
Almost 127,000 people had MS in 2010 and more than 6000 people were diagnosed with the condition that year, according to research from Dundee University.
Women are more likely to have multiple sclerosis than men, accounting for 72% of cases, and it is most commonly diagnosed when a patient is between the ages of 40 and 50.
Dr Isla Mackenzie, Clinical Senior Lecturer at the Medicines Monitoring Unit (MEMO) at the University of Dundee, led the study, which used data from four million patients at GP practices.
She said: "It is important to have this information on the prevalence of MS in order to understand the impact of this disease and to ensure that adequate resources are provided both nationally and regionally for people affected by MS."
MS is a neurological disease with no cure in which the coating of the nerve fibres is damaged, causing a range of symptoms. It can lead to high levels of disability and impaired life quality.
Dr Jonathan O'Riordan, Consultant Neurologist at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, added: "The vast majority of newly diagnosed patients will have the relapsing remitting form of the disease."
The number of people with the condition rose by about 2.4% every year, the Dundee University researchers found.
Scotland has higher rates of multiple sclerosis than elsewhere in the UK, with some experts linking the incidence to the lack of naturally occurring vitamin D because of a lack of sunlight.