The study will be carried out at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London and could result in a recommendation that women receive the test early in pregnancy.
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) can predict with 99% accuracy whether a baby has Down's but is currently only available in private hospitals. The blood test detects a baby's genetic material and does not carry any risk of miscarriage, unlike current invasive tests.
Testing for Down's involves a combination of an ultrasound scan of the baby and a blood test for the mother.
Meanwhile, Scotland is to host the World Down Syndrome Congress for the first time. More than 1200 delegates are due to attend the event in August 2018 at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre.