Patients with leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma, along with those in southern Europe have seen a lower increase in survival rates than other parts of the Continent. Only eastern Europe has a worse survival rate.
Researchers said regional difference could be down to whether new drugs are prescribed.
The study was published in The Lancet Oncology. Dr Milena Sant, from the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori in Milan said: "The good news is that five-year survival for most cancers of the blood has increased over the past 11 years."