The new facilities will be based at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary after a total of £120 million of funding was announced for the project by Finance Secretary John Swinney.
Speaking at Holyrood, he also revealed £100 million of support for local authorities to deliver new and refurbished school buildings.
The projects will be delivered as part of a £1 billion extension of the non-profit distributing (NPD) programme, he said.
NPD was developed as a finance model for privately-funded infrastructure projects and is an alternative to public private partnerships.
Mr Swinney told MSPs: "This investment will build on the successes of the current NPD programmes, delivering colleges, schools, roads, hospitals and community health facilities across Scotland.
"It will provide the construction sector with the long-term certainty of a future pipeline of work that will promote growth and help create jobs."
SNP MSP for Aberdeen Central Kevin Stewart welcomed the funding as a "major boost" to health facilities in the city and surrounding area.
"This investment will improve the care on offer for people affected by cancer by bringing services together in a purpose-built location," he said.
"Expectant mothers across the north east will benefit from state-of-the-art facilities."
Health Secretary Alex Neil added: "I believe the dedicated cancer centre will ensure that care continues to meet and indeed exceed the standard we all expect."