The construction of schools, hospitals, housing and transport projects supported 40,000 jobs over the past 12 months, according to Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon.
A progress report on the government's Infrastructure Investment Plan, published today, said investment can be expected to top £8 billion between 2014/15 and 2015/16.
Ms Sturgeon gave details as she visited the site of the planned Hunter Health Centre in East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire, which is due to be completed next summer.
She said: "Infrastructure investment over 2013/14 is estimated to have supported some 40,000 jobs in communities across Scotland.
"That is good news for our economy and our construction industry, which we know benefits from the certainty and vision of the future the Infrastructure Investment Plan provides.
"Today's progress report and updated pipeline shows that significant progress has been made across all sectors over the past year. This is despite substantial cuts in our capital budget from Westminster of some 27% in real terms between 2010/11 and 2015/16.
"With the full powers of independence and prudent use of borrowing powers, we could bring forward investment more quickly - making a very substantial difference to our economy both now and in the future."
NHS Lanarkshire chief executive Ian Ross said: "We're well on course to deliver these three magnificent community health centres in Wishaw, East Kilbride and Kilsyth by the summer of 2015.
"When ready, they will provide excellent facilities to allow us to deliver truly modern, top class health services."
Transport Scotland meanwhile announced that key roads will benefit from an extra £10 million in investment this spring.
In the North, the A90 at Stonehaven will be resurfaced and major repairs are being made to the Dumfries by-pass.
Work will be carried out to replace bridge joints on the M8, M80, M9 and A90.
Transport Minister Keith Brown said: "This extra investment will help us will address some of the issues on road surfaces and structures across the country.
"It is something that drivers feel strongly about and we are responding to their concerns by using this money where it is required most.
"The work is in addition to the routine maintenance that will continue to be carried-out by our operating companies and the extra investment underlines our commitment to improving our major A class roads and motorways to support national and local economies."