Arran Cooper, from Rutherglen, is understood to have been on a break with his family when tragedy struck.
Emergency services raced to the remote forest in Bridge of Orchy, Argyll, at around 1.45pm on Tuesday.
He got into difficulty in a "very remote" section of the River Orchy in the Caledonian Forest Reserve.
Aaran was airlifted to the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow to receive treatment but was later transferred to Yorkkhill Children's Hospital
However, he died early on Wednesday.
A Police Scotland spokesman said: "Around 1.45pm a 10-year-old boy fell into the River Orchy in the Caledonaian Forst reserve.
"He was rescued by RAF helicopter and airlifted to hospital in Glasgow for treatment.
"Sadly, the boy passed away at Yorkhill Children's Hospital in the early hours of Wednesday.
"Inquiries are underway and a full report will be sent to the procurator fiscal."