Veteran actress Dame Maggie Smith, actors Damian Lewis and Daniel Day-Lewis, and singer Adele all collected gongs.
British blockbuster Les Miserables took centre stage at the awards, with the adaptation taking home three prizes.
Brave, the Pixar film featuring a host of Scottish actors' voices, has also nominated in the best animated film category of the Oscars and Baftas.
The movie, which has been hailed as a major boon for Scottish tourism, is set in the Highlands, and follows the heroic journey of Merida, voiced by Kelly Macdonald. Other actors involved include Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, Kevin McKidd, Craig Ferguson and Robbie Coltrane.
Dame Maggie was the first Briton of the night to win, collecting her award for best supporting actress in a TV miniseries for her role as Violet Crawley in ITV's Downton Abbey.
But the veteran actress, who did not attend the ceremony in Los Angeles, missed out on a second gong for best actress in a comedy or musical in her latest film Quartet.
Singer Adele gushed "oh my God" repeatedly as she took to the stage with co-writer Paul Epworth to collect her award for best original song for a motion picture for their theme tune to the James Bond adventure Skyfall.
She then offered her gratitude to the group that presents the Globes, saying: "I'd like to thank the Hollywood Foreign Press. I never thought I'd say that."
Homeland star Damian Lewis dedicated his win for best actor in a television drama to his mother.
"I'd like to dedicate this to my mum, looking down on me bursting with pride telling everyone around her how well her son is doing in acting," Lewis said.
Irish actor Daniel Day-Lewis collected best actor in a drama for his starring role as Abraham Lincoln in Lincoln.
Les Miserables, directed by British film-maker Tom Hooper, scooped the best movie, musical or comedy while leading man Hugh Jackman collected best actor in a musical or comedy for his role as Jean Valjean.
Anne Hathaway also picked up the gong for best supporting actress for her part as Fantine.