The Federation of Small Businesses (FSB) in Scotland fears the move could undermine efforts to breathe new life into the country's high streets.
Scotland's top police officer, Sir Stephen House, is considering scrapping public counters at 65 of Scotland's 214 police stations to offer "value for money" in the new national force.
Opposition politicians have raised concerns with First Minister Alex Salmond, with Liberal Democrat leader Willie Rennie saying that the police are being "asset stripped".
Now the FSB is arguing that if the public counters are closed, it could sever a link between the police and local businesses.
FSB Scottish policy convener Andy Willox said: "In July the Scottish Government said that by diversifying our high streets, we can make them better places to live, work and socialise. In October we learn of yet another public body choosing to make cutbacks in our home towns.
"When the FSB learned of the Scottish Courts Service's decision to close local courts without fully considering the local economic impact, we urged the Scottish Government to instruct all parts of the public sector to consider how their decisions impact upon local economies.
"However, as Scottish public bodies look to make cash savings, it seems time and time again that they're choosing to consolidate their estates, reducing headcounts in non-central locations and narrowing the number of public services on our high streets and town centres."
Mr Willox has raised his concerns in a letter to Local Government Minister Derek Mackay.
"We've written to the Scottish Government to urge them to instruct the public sector to co-ordinate restructuring and get behind their high streets and communities," he said.
Mr Salmond has told MSPs that local policing will remain the "bedrock" of the system, as he criticised the approach taken by the Conservative-LibDem UK Government.
"They have taken the decision to drastically cut the numbers of police officers across England and Wales. They have drastically cut the number of police stations. We have taken a decision to have extra police officers in Scotland," he said.
Meanwhile the officer in charge of the review has insisted it will not lead to stations being closed.
Assistant Chief Constable Wayne Mawson said: "My review is about rationalising the front-counter provision and making front-counter opening hours consistent across the country, and it's absolutely geared toward meeting local demand.
"It's also about keeping as many police officers as possible out on the street where they belong, keeping people safe."
A consultation on the proposals was announced on Tuesday and will run for four weeks.