The Prime Minister spoke to the Russian president for the first time since MH17 was brought down, apparently by pro-Moscow rebels, in eastern Ukraine on Thursday.
Mr Cameron, who was left frustrated by Mr Putin's refusal to speak to him until today, said he had "made clear" his demands in the phone call which came as the European Union looked set to impose tougher sanctions on Russia over its support for rebels in Ukraine.
The Prime Minister said: "I've just spoken to president Putin. I made clear he must ensure access to the crash site so the victims can have proper funerals."
Rebels in eastern Ukraine took control of the bodies recovered from the downed Malaysia Airlines aeroplane.
Donetsk rebel leader Alexander Borodai said the bodies recovered from the crash site would remain in four refrigerated train cars in the rebel-held town of Torez, nine miles from the crash site, until the arrival of an international aviation delegation.