The initial guidance was drawn up after the 2004 fire at Rosepark care home in Uddingston, South Lanarkshire, that claimed the lives of 14 residents.
The document was praised by a sheriff during a fatal accident inquiry into the tragedy in 2011.
The Scottish Government said it had revisited the guidance to make it more user friendly and take account of feedback from a public consultation.
The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) is also currently finalising a new agreement with the Care Inspectorate to improve fire safety.
Community safety minister Roseanna Cunningham said: "It is essential that we do everything we can to protect often vulnerable residents of Scotland's care homes from the risk of fire.
"We have taken the opportunity to develop a substantial revision of the Scottish Government's fire safety guidance to provide an improved guide which is practical and easy to use.
"We support the strengthened partnership working between SFRS and the Care Inspectorate to ensure fire safety measures at care homes are regularly inspected, information shared and any issues quickly addressed.
"We hope this will give residents and their families peace of mind and prevent further tragedies from occurring."