MSPs approved legislation earlier this year that will mean everyone up to the age of 18 will have a "named person" - such as a health worker or headteacher - assigned to look out for their welfare and wellbeing.
The No To Named Persons (NO2NP) group, spearheaded by the Christian Institute, yesterday lodged legal papers at the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
Lawyers for the group have already written a letter informing the Government they are seeking a judicial review of section four of the Children and Young People (Scotland) Act.
Campaigners say the blanket nature of the named person provisions "constitutes a disproportionate and unjustified interference with the right to respect for individual family's right to a private and family life", and claim it could be in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights.
But the Scottish Government said the legislation was supported by a large majority of those who responded to the public consultation as well as a wide range of children's charities.
Children's Minister Aileen Campbell has rejected claims the measure will introduce "state snoopers".
But Simon Calvert, deputy director of the Christian Institute, said: "It's strange that a government so committed to independence should be taking it away from families in this way."
Campaigners are awaiting a date for an initial hearing, and believe the process will take months to complete.