The £10 million project, to be done ahead of schedule this year, will see the main terminal building refurbished.
The investment is in addition to £7 million already designated to the expansion of the international arrivals area and follows two years of capital projects worth around £21 million.
Central to the latest development is "passenger experience", with upgrades to the main check-in hall and toilets.
A large portion of the funds will be put towards the airfield itself, with LED lighting installed on the airport taxiways.
Amanda McMillan, managing director of Glasgow Airport, said: "The eyes of the world will fall on Glasgow during 2014 and we fully recognise the important role we have to play in helping deliver a successful and memorable Commonwealth Games.
"We see ourselves as being the gateway to the Games and not only will this significant investment ensure we continue to provide high-quality facilities for passengers, it will help create a lasting legacy for Glasgow Airport and the city."
The main works are scheduled to begin in October.