Recent success at the Eastleigh by-election, gains across councils and their record in Government show that only the Lib Dems can build a stronger country, he told the Scottish party's spring conference.
"I have spent nearly three years asking you to hold firm," he told an audience of more than 300 people in Dundee.
"Three years urging you to remain steady under fire, and you have. But now, Scottish Liberal Democrats, I have a different message for you: win."
He conceded the party suffered a particular backlash in Scotland after entering coalition with the Conservatives at Westminster in 2010.
One year on from that, Lib Dems at the Scottish Parliament were reduced from 16 MSPs to just five.
Mr Clegg, speaking the week after the UK party's conference in Brighton, accused the other major political parties of failing to take action to improve the economy and society.
He singled out Home Secretary Theresa May for her suggestion that Britain could pull out of the European Convention on Human Rights.
Mr Clegg also drew attention to the only Conservative MP north of the border, the Scotland Office minister David Mundell.
"With only one MP in Scotland, who honestly thinks that the Conservatives on their own will stand up for you?" he said.
As well as attacking his Coalition partners, Mr Clegg criticised Labour and the SNP. "You can't trust Labour with your money," he said.
"That's why they have stagnated in Scotland and we saw the evidence in Eastleigh too.
"Labour made no progress there whatsoever. When the people of Eastleigh had the opportunity, they rejected them once again.
"They remember that Labour destroyed the economy, spent all the money and left us with nothing."
The SNP has also failed to come up with a credible plan for the economy using extra cash from the UK Government, he said.
"Scotland has benefited, receiving an additional £1.5 billion in capital spending since 2010 to get construction going," he continued.
"It is up to the SNP to explain why they are not getting on with it. What did happen to their Plan MacB?"
He highlighted Lib Dem action in the Coalition, including a £600 tax cut for 2.2 million Scots, "generous" increases in state pension and the Green Investment Bank, which will have a base in Edinburgh.
The track record shows Scotland should stick with the UK when it comes to the referendum on independence next year, he said, suggesting a No vote at the ballot box will lead to more devolved power for Holyrood.
"In that campaign we will set out how Scotland benefits from being in the UK and how the UK benefits from having Scotland as part of it," Mr Clegg said.
"If the Scottish people decide, as I hope they do, they want to remain in the United Kingdom, then we can get on with the business of giving Scotland more power."
Mr Clegg compared the Tory presence in Scotland with his own party's 11 MPs, which includes Treasury Chief Secretary Danny Alexander and Scottish Secretary Michael Moore.
In Scotland, he praised the party's leader, Willie Rennie. "No-one can be in any doubt, the Liberal Democrats are winning again," said Mr Clegg.
"You can feel that sense of renewed optimism and purpose in Scotland too - thanks, in no small part, to the excellent leadership of Willie Rennie."
But the opening day of the spring conference was not all plain sailing for the Deputy Prime Minister. Activists sent a clear message to the leadership rejecting support for so-called secret courts legislation.
The provision of the Justice and Security Bill goes against their core values, delegates agreed.