The leader and his team of Scottish Government ministers would be prevented from carrying out any formal business in areas such as parks and offices, under the plan being put to the full city council on Wednesday.
Labour councillor Willie Young, who proposed the unusual move, said relations are at an all-time low with the Government.
It follows complaints from the city about the level of financial support from central government. Mr Salmond recently suggested the city administration is "incompetent" for its handling of a decision which he says could cost Aberdeen £7.3 million.
Mr Young said: "Mr Salmond has acted like a bully and spoken unacceptably about the city council.
"The only way to tackle a bully is to stand up to him.
"We'd obviously want to get the Scottish Government round the table and see if we can come to a better understanding, but I fully expect support for this action."
The ban, if backed, would only extend to official business.
"If he wants to go for a walk with his wife in one of our lovely parks, no one will stop him," Mr Young added.
A spokesman for Derek Mackay, the local government minister, said: "Willie Young is the £7.3 million man. His actions in voting against plans which would have seen a £7.3 million increase in funding for Aberdeen were bizarre as well as against the interests of the people of Aberdeen.
"The Scottish Government has good relations with all of Scotland's other 31 councils - despite those councils being of many different political colours. In that context it is the increasingly bizarre comments from the Labour-Tory alliance at Aberdeen City Council which stand out."