A win would make it a hat-trick of Oscars for Day-Lewis, who previously collected best actor accolades for There Will Be Blood and My Left Foot.
He is shortlisted alongside Les Miserables star Hugh Jackman, Denzel Washington, Joaquin Phoenix and Bradley Cooper.
Lincoln has 12 nominations –including best film, cinema-tography, costumes and for director Steven Spielberg.
The nomination for Adele is the first recognition for the Bond franchise by the Academy Awards committee in more than 30 years. But the movie has been broadly ignored in the nominations, with stars Daniel Craig and Dame Judi Dench failing to make the shortlists for best actor or best actress and the film also missing out in the best picture category.
Best picture is being fought out between Les Miserables, directed by The King's Speech filmmaker Tom Hooper; Ben Affleck's Argo, set during the Iran hostage crisis; Beasts Of The Southern Wild and Quentin Tarantino's western Django Unchained.
Life Of Pi, Amour, Silver Linings Playbook and Zero Dark Thirty complete the shortlist.
Brave, the Disney-Pixar animation set in Scotland, has also been shortlisted for an Oscar, just days after it was nominated for a Bafta.
First Minister Alex Salmond said: "Brave has been a terrific showcase for Scotland.
"The incredible efforts of the Disney-Pixar team in bringing Scotland to life on the big screen created a vision of our iconic landscapes that has touched people all over the world."
British-born Naomi Watts was recognised for her role in Impossible with a nod in the best actress category. Also nominated are Jessica Chastain for Zero Dark Thirty, Jennifer Lawrence for Silver Linings Playbook, nine-year-old Quvenzhane Wallis – who led the cast in Beasts of the Southern Wild – and Emmanuelle Riva for Amour..
Adele's nomination for best original song puts her up against Oscars host Seth MacFarlane, who is listed for Everybody Needs A Best Friend from his film Ted.
The nominees also include Suddenly from Les Miserables, which was co-written by London journalist Herbert Kretzmer.
This year's Oscar Awards ceremony will be held in Los Angeles on February 24.
Amour; Argo; Beasts of the Southern Wild; Django Unchained; Les Miserables; Lincoln; Life Of Pi; Silver Linings Playbook; Zero Dark Thirty
Jessica Chastain (Zero Dark Thirty); Jennifer Lawrence (Silver Linings Playbook); Emmanuelle Riva (Amour); Quvenzhane Wallis (Beasts of the Southern Wild); Naomi Watts (The Impossible)
Daniel Day Lewis (Lincoln); Bradley Cooper (Silver Linings Playbook); Hugh Jackman (Les Miserables); Joaquin Phoenix (The Master); Denzel Washington (Flight)
Michael Haneke (Amour); Ang Lee (Life of Pi); David O Russell (Silver Linings Playbook); Steven Spielberg (Lincoln); Benh Zeitlin (Beasts of the Southern Wild)
Best supporting actor
Alan Arkin (Argo); Robert De Niro (Silver Linings Playbook); Tommy Lee Jones (Lincoln); Christoph Waltz (Django Unchained); Philip Seymour Hoffman (The Master)
Best supporting actress
Amy Adams (The Master); Sally Field (Lincoln); Anne Hathaway (Les Miserables); Helen Hunt (The Sessions); Jacki Weaver (Silver Linings Playbook)
Best foreign film
Amour; No; War Witch; A Royal Affair; Kon-Tiki
Best animated film
Brave; Frankenweenie; Paranorman; Pirates! Band of Misfits (Pirates! In an Adventure with Scientists); Wreck-It Ralph