Environment Minister Paul Wheelhouse announced the mapping project days after an expert group published a major report on land reform.
"One of their key recommendations was on land registration, and I agree with the group that a fundamental step on this journey must be having a clear understanding of who owns our land in Scotland," he said.
"This will benefit everyone as land transactions are more difficult and expensive if it's not already on the land register. This will ensure that at last everyone will know who owns Scotland."
Registers of Scotland has been asked to finish the register in a decade, with all public land registered within five years.