Almost all new car sales will be near zero emission at the tailpipe from 2040, and half of all fossil fuel vehicles will be phased out in urban areas by 2030, the Scottish Government says.
Around £14 million will be spent over two years to encourage motorists and businesses to switch to electric vehicles and contribute to Scotland's climate change targets being reached. Charge points will be installed at Scottish Government buildings, and petrol and diesel vehicles in its fleet will be replaced with electric alternatives.
Funding will be offered to businesses and employers in order to encourage them to install recharging points at workplaces. Grants to help people buy electric cars and vans are already available.
Rapid-charge points will also be installed at least every 50 miles on the main road network, according to the document.
Transport Minister Keith Brown said the roadmap's "bold vision" requires a transformation in how people and goods are moved.
"This transformation is absolutely vital to achieve our ambitious climate change targets," he said.
"It will also help improve local air quality with a resultant improvement in public health and well-being and contribute to further energising Scotland's economy through opportunities for our flourishing green technology industries and renewable energy sector."