Unite suspended a planned stoppage last month at the site on the Clyde, but has revived action after most of its members turned down a 2% offer.
A two-hour walkout will be held from 10am on March 11, followed by "staged stoppages", as well as a work to rule and overtime ban.
The dispute is between Unite and contractors Babcock, which the union claimed was paying huge bonuses to top directors.
National officer Ian Waddell said: "Babcock's top four directors are making hay, sharing £7 million between them and then taking a 9% increase on their basic pay. All the while the company sees fit to impose years of real-term cuts on a workforce that has done everything to help this private sector giant fulfil its business objectives.
"Babcock Marine has been well warned about the ramifications of its grossly unfair pay policies.
"Our members are no longer prepared to play the part of the poor relations.
"We entered talks, suspending our industrial action in good faith, in the hope that we could negotiate a deal that would give this loyal workforce the fairness it deserves, but the company tabled its new position and that was the end of the matter.
"A prolonged period of industrial action will severely disrupt day-to-day operations at the Faslane and Coulport bases, but the workers will strive to ensure the safety of the workforce, the naval base and the local communities will not be compromised."
Babcock said it was "surprised" by Unite's decision, adding: "We have gone back to them with a new multi-year deal which significantly increases the consolidated pay element at their request and provides an opportunity for further reward."