Dr Heather Ross fell and hit her head as a result of the collision, which occurred as she cycled near her home, in St Andrews, Fife, on Friday afternoon.
Police said a man was involved in the collision with the "passing cyclist" causing them both to fall into the roadway. Dr Ross, 63, was rushed for medical treatment by ambulance but en route it was intercepted by the trauma team from Ninewells Hospital near Leuchars so further treatment could be given to the patient.
She died later that day in Ninewells.
The male pedestrian, who was not seriously hurt, had left the scene before police officers arrived. Police are keen to trace the man to help with their inquiries.
Until her recent retirement, Dr Ross worked at the Scottish Crop Research Institute in Invergowrie, Perthshire. Her work included investigating the factors that influence the texture, quality and palatability of cooked potatoes and potato products. She also had a long and dedicated affiliation to St Andrews Sailing Club, where she was the RYA Principal Trainer.
Police are asking anyone who can help with their inquiries to come forward.