Fifty elderly people were moved from their rooms, along with six members of staff, after the alarm was raised at Forth View Care Centre on Sea Road, Methil, at 4.30am.
Fife firefighters discovered a blaze in the first-floor dining room. It was extinguished by 6.30am with the assistance of five appliances.
A spokesman for the Fife Fire and Rescue Service said: "We had five appliances in attendance for a fire in a first-floor dining room.
"Staff and residents were evacuated to different wings of the building and kept under ambulance surveillance.
"All persons have been accounted for."
An ambulance service spokesman said seven paramedic teams were sent to the scene, but there had been no casualties.