The figures, which form part of the results of the Scottish Health Survey, show that in 2012, 74% of men and 67% of women gambled and 0.7% of adults - some 31,000 - were identified as problem gamblers.
According to the unprecedented analysis, a further 3% of adults were at low risk of harm from their gambling behaviour and 1% were at moderate risk.
It also revealed that a quarter of men and almost one-fifth of women in Scotland drank at levels considered "hazardous" last year. While the proportion of adults drinking at hazardous levels has fallen over the past decade, 2012 figures show little improvement and remain identical to those published in 2011.
A Church of Scotland spokesman said that although 0.7% is very low, it was a cause for concern, even though it is lower than the national UK average.
He added: "However, whatever the number, one person affected by gambling is one person too many.
"The nature of gambling is inherently disturbing and the government and other agencies have to be aware of the effects and consequences of gambling on individuals and their families."
The survey of Scots found that excluding the National Lottery, one in 12 adults participated in online gambling in the previous 12 months, with men three times more likely than women to have done so.
Gambling participation was typically highest among those aged 25-54. However, when play on the National Lottery only was excluded, participation rates were highest among those young people aged 16-24 (64% of men and 47% of women).
A Salvation Army spokesman said it had been long concerned at the effects gambling is having on communities across Scotland.
He added: "Problem gambling is a serious social and public health issue that has worsened since the 2005 Gambling Act was passed. It affects the most vulnerable individuals in our society and can lead to relation- ship breakdowns, deprivation and other forms of addiction."
Scottish Labour's spokeswoman on Wellbeing, Rhoda Grant, said: "It's welcome that we are now getting figures on the extent of gambling in Scotland. We have to make sure that support services are in place to allow early intervention to ensure gambling doesn't become a serious problem that blights more people's lives."
A Scottish Government spokeswoman said: "The report this year also looks at gambling behaviour for the first time. Levels of problem gambling in Scotland are low and consistent with levels seen across the UK. However, the Scottish Government recognises the devastation that gambling problems can cause for individuals and will continue to press the UK Government to ensure that the fast-changing gambling landscape doesn't lead to more widespread problems."