Stephen Roberts, whose health care company Log Six Systems claims to kill all superbugs "known to man", said that LSS had another £500,000 in the pipeline from the jobs quango and two other public bodies.
However, Scottish Enterprise has said it is seeking "urgent clarification" over the claims while the other organisations have denied any funding role.
The Sunday Herald revealed last week that LSS, founded by Ayrshire-based Roberts, won £50,000 at the Scottish Edge awards earlier this year.
The Dragons' Den-style competition is delivered by Scottish Enterprise on behalf of the Government and gives cash to start-ups.
All the winners, including LSS, received their award from Finance Secretary John Swinney.
However, the financial support was questioned after details of Roberts' past emerged.
He is currently disqualified from being a company director and was made bankrupt for 12 months in 2011 over debts of nearly £800,000.
In the same year, a judge described him as "evasive and devious" in a tax case in which one of his former firms had not paid its national insurance contributions.
Roberts is now facing questions over an email he sent last month to entrepreneur Rob Murray Brown, who was interested in investing in LSS.
In the email, Roberts said a Scottish Enterprise "R&D grant" worth £100,000 had been "approved", while a "smart grant" of the same value had been "verbally supported" by the same body.
He claimed Scottish Development International, the international arm of SE, had "provisionally approved" £40,000, while £250,000 for "regional selective assistance" from the same source was "in process". However, an SE spokesperson said that, other than the £50,000 Edge award, the only extra funding for LSS came to around £12,000.
He added that no other funding had been approved: "We're in discussion with the company on a number of opportunities to help them realise their growth potential, including R&D, innovation and international support. However, we have not made any additional offers of funding at this point.
"We are now seeking urgent clarification from the company about communications they appear to be issuing."
Roberts also claimed that £30,000 from Health Science Scotland was "pending".
However, Graeme Boyle from HSS said: "No application has been made, or is being considered and no grant has been awarded."
Roberts also stated that an £8000 "job creation grant" from North Ayrshire Council was "in process".
A council spokesperson said: "We can confirm that we have not provided financial support to Log Six Systems, nor are there any pending applications as far as we are aware."
Murray Brown, who contacted LSS after viewing its details on a crowdfunding website, said: "I find it hard to believe that the information I was given concerning SE and other Government agency grants was so misleading.
"While I am happy that our due diligence got to the bottom of the matter, crowdfunding encourages smaller investors to take a punt - often in my experience without any due diligence. In this instance, claiming substantial revenues from Government grants could lead people to reckless investment decisions."
Tory MSP Murdo Fraser said: "The more we hear about Mr Roberts' activities, the more concerns are raised.
"Scottish Enterprise needs to be very careful about supporting any company with which he has a connection, given what we have learned so far."
Brian Deuchar, a director of LSS, said: "We have got nothing further to add."
Roberts could not be contacted.