Iain McKenzie, the Labour MP for Inverclyde, said the errors were "unacceptable" at a time when many elderly people were being forced to make difficult spending decisions.
He called on the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to ensure the correct payments were received, but it insisted there is not a problem with its systems.
The department said it was up to individual residents to ensure the department knew their housing circumstances.
The problem is caused when pensioners live in apartment blocks, tenements or sheltered housing. The system does not accurately reflect whether they live alone or with another resident, and as a result can allocate them just half of the payment they should receive.
Mr McKenzie said his office had received calls from about 30 constituents already this winter. He said: "At the start of 2012, my office was advised that a team had been set up specifically to resolve these problems and to ensure all constituents who received the wrong entitlement would get their top-up payments without delay.
"Not only did many of my constituents have to wait until the end of March to receive the full allowance, one year later the same constituents are once again affected by these so-called 'system errors'.
"This is really not acceptable.At a time when our elderly are being forced to choose between fuel and food, such errors only add to their strain."
A spokesman for the DWP insisted the problem was not because of a "system error'". He said: "Winter Fuel Payments are paid to eligible people in a household – it's important that if someone thinks the payment they received is wrong, that we hold their full address.
"For example, if they live in a flat, we need to know the flat number, not just the address for the block."
Meanwhile, Citizens Advice Scotland (CAS) said more must be done for people struggling with rising fuel bills.
The charity is calling on suppliers and regulators to target help for those who have difficulty meeting the costs of heating their homes.
In 2011/12, 7400 Scots visited Citizens Advice Bureaux for help with 9500 energy issues.
Almost 40% of these clients were seeking help with debts related to energy bills, with 83% of them saying they were having problems paying bills.
CAS is calling on energy firms to fix prepayment meters at the cheapest tariff they offer; take into account problems faced by customers whose only income is from benefits; and notify customers of arrears as early as possible.
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