The baton will travel to all 71 nations and territories of the Commonwealth during its 248-day journey, including India, Singapore, St Lucia and Canada, organisers said.
It will set off from Buckingham Palace on October 9, where the Queen will place a message to the athletes inside.
From there, it will travel to Glasgow, 2014's host city, before embarking on a voyage around the world.
Queen's baton relay route map
The first stop will be Delhi, which hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and it will continue on through Asia, Oceania, Africa, North and South America, the Caribbean and Europe.
The baton will eventually return to Scotland, making its way back to Glasgow for the opening ceremony of the Games on July 23, 2014.
It is expected to cover about 118,000 miles (190,000km) and will make history by becoming the first baton to visit Rwanda.
The relay, a Commonwealth Games tradition, is designed to unite the two billion citizens of the Commonwealth in a celebration of sport, diversity and peace.
Organisers said the relay offers Glasgow and Scotland a "once-in-a-lifetime" opportunity to "shine" on the global stage.
The International Sector Route announcement was made this morning, on Commonwealth Day.
The baton will spend an average of one to four days in each nation, with an extended duration of seven days in Wales, two weeks in England and 40 days in Scotland.
It will be in Vanuatu, in the South Pacific, over Christmas, bring in the start of 2014 in Sierra Leone and celebrate St Andrew's Day - dedicated to the patron Saint of Scotland - in New Zealand.
The smallest island on the route is Nauru, also in the South Pacific.
The Commonwealth baton will spend four days on board RMS St Helena as it crosses the South Atlantic Ocean from South Africa to St Helena.
It will be relayed overseas by Emirates, the official airline of the Queen's Baton Relay and a Glasgow 2014 partner.
With less than 500 days to go until Glasgow hosts the event, the route was unveiled at the city's Emirates Arena, which will be a major venue for the Games.
Glasgow 2014 chairman Lord Smith of Kelvin said: "For Scotland and Glasgow the Queen's Baton Relay (QBR) creates an unparalleled chance to put both city and nation into the international spotlight, creating valuable economic, cultural and educational opportunities for and beyond the Games.
"It is a truly unique cross-continental relay which offers chances for trade and investment opportunities overseas, and which connects Glasgow and Scotland to the Commonwealth, and invites the Commonwealth back here.
"It is our opportunity to be on a global stage, sharing our messages of goodwill, opportunity and potential the baton - and the Games themselves - hope to bring to the Commonwealth.
"The last lap of this global journey brings the baton back home to touch every community in Scotland as the baton journeys to its final destination."
Scotland's minister for Commonwealth Games and sport, Shona Robison, said: "The QBR is a thread linking Scotland to valuable economic, cultural, and educational links with other countries before the Games - links we hope to build on during the Games and in the years to come.
"By visiting every nation and territory who will send a team, the QBR is a great example of why the Commonwealth Games are known as the 'Friendly Games' and we are sure that Glasgow 2014 can be the friendliest yet."
Michael Cavanagh, chairman of Commonwealth Games Scotland, said: "We know from past experience of hosting a Queen's Baton Relay leg in Scotland that this is the time when awareness of the Games goes live for each country."
Archie Graham, executive member for the Commonwealth Games at Glasgow City Council, said: "The Games will offer Glasgow a unique showcase to demonstrate what we can do to two billion people and will present us with many different opportunities."
Organisers will reveal the design of the baton, which is being specially-made for Glasgow 2014, later this year.
Pupils from local primary schools Dalmarnock and St Michaels carried the flags of the competing nations as the route was unveiled at the Emirates Arena in Glasgow's east end.
Dancers from community arts groups Maryhill Integration Network and Barrowlands Ballet performed at the launch, with two-year-old Otis Bazie stealing the show with a ballet routine on the shoulders of a fellow dancer.
Host Hazel Irvine praised the dancers and predicted that Otis will be a "future star".
Contextual targeting label:
Hobbies and general interest