Double Bafta winner Colman is nominated for her roles in hit ITV crime series Broadchurch - which is also up for best drama serial - and gritty Channel 4 drama Run.
Glaswegian actress Rooney is in the running at the Royal Television Society (RTS) awards for her first major TV role on E4 show My Mad Fat Diary.
The show, based on a teenager's diary, is also up for best drama series, up against Peaky Blinders (BBC2) and Utopia (Channel 4).
Rooney, who was touring with a theatre education group when she received an email about trying out for the drama, almost turned down the audition.
She initially refused to read the script thinking it would be to play another "big girl" who is a bully or a victim.
Jodie Whittaker is also nominated for best actress, for her role alongside Colman in Broadchurch.
The best male actor award sees Idris Elba nominated for Luther, alongside Stephen Dillane for The Tunnel and Lennie James for Run.
EastEnders, which has been undergoing a revamp, has been snubbed in the soap and continuing drama category, where Casualty, Coronation Street and Emmerdale are up for the award.
Sir David Attenborough is up for best presenter for Sky show Galapagos 3D, alongside Stephen Fry for Stephen Fry - Out There and Davina McCall for Long Lost Family.
Gogglebox - the new Channel 4 show featuring people watching the week's TV - is up for best popular, factual and features, up against Lost Lost Family and Gadget Man.
The Wimbledon Men's Final is nominated for live event, against The Ashes and Bollywood Carmen Live.
Ant and Dec are up for best entertainment performance, for Britain's Got Talent and Saturday Night Takeaway, alongside Alan Carr for his Channel 4 chat show and Leigh Francis for Celebrity Juice and Through The Keyhole.
Richard III: King In The Car Park, on Channel 4, is up for best history, against Secrets From The Workhouse (ITV) and The Story Of The Jews (BBC2).
The RTS Programme Awards, presented by comedian Tim Vine, will take place at London's Grosvenor House Hotel in London tonight.