The Ryder Cup Heritage Exhibition features memorabilia detailing the history of the golf event which started as a friendly match between British and American Professional Golfers' Association (PGA) professionals at Gleneagles in Perthshire.
It will be displayed in the Parliament's main hall until May 30.
The official painting of the 2014 Ryder Cup was also unveiled today and will be on display at the Parliament until November 4.
The picture, by Scottish golf artist Graeme Baxter, shows the second hole on the PGA Centenary Course at Gleneagles.
Scottish Parliament Presiding Officer Tricia Marwick said: "It is fitting that one of sport's most prestigious and well-known tournaments is celebrated in the Parliament in this way as excitement builds across Scotland for the Ryder Cup in September.
"From golfers to history fans, I am sure visitors to Holyrood will enjoy this unique exhibition and Graeme Baxter's beautiful artwork."
This year's Ryder Cup will take place at Gleneagles.
PGA chief executive Sandy Jones said: "The Ryder Cup is one of the most eagerly-awaited events on the sporting calendar, having risen from relatively humble beginnings back in the 1920s to become one of the world's major sporting events.
"In the year that the Ryder Cup returns to Scotland, we are delighted to bring the Ryder Cup Heritage Exhibition to the Scottish Parliament and I hope golf fans will enjoy this special exhibition which has an array of fascinating memorabilia from past matches dating back to the very first official match in 1927."