The former Daily Record sports journalist was appointed as the club's Director of Communications in December 2012.
It is understood his departure is linked with cost-cutting measures at the club.
A statement on the Rangers website said: "Rangers today announce that Director of Communications James Traynor has left the Club."
Traynor, 59, bemoaned the demise of journalism in Scotland and attacked some online commentators in his last Record column, published days before his Rangers appointment was announced.
He is the latest high-profile figure to leave Ibrox.
The club placed an advert for a new Chief Executive in the Financial Times on Thursday, following the departure of Craig Mather earlier this month.