Khanokporn Satjawat, 42, was found in the toilets of the Clyde Auditorium at around 2.30pm on Monday.
Ms Satjawat, a manager for a pharmaceutical company, was a delegate at an HIV treatment conference, the 11th International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection.
Paramedics were called to the venue in a bid to save her but she was pronounced dead at the scene.
The 34-year-old man was last night detained in police custody and is expected to appear at the city's sheriff court today.
A spokeswoman for Strathclyde Police said relatives of Ms Satjawat have been informed. She added: "A 34-year-old man has been arrested and is presently detained in police custody in connection with the death of a 42-year-old woman in Glasgow on Monday. Around 2.30pm yesterday afternoon, the body of Ms Khanokporn Satjawat, from Thailand, was found within the Clyde Auditorium.
Ms Satjawat posted a photograph of a presentation within the auditorium on her Facebook page at around 9.15am. She was pronounced dead by mid-afternoon.
Last night, officers remained outside the venue, which was closed as investigations took place.
Delegates from all over the world are taking part in the conference, which began on Sunday and runs until Thursday. All were questioned by police and moved elsewhere within the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC) to complete their meetings and lectures.
One said: "You don't expect something like this to happen at a big international conference. It doesn't leave a good feeling in your stomach."
Another added: "We got a message that a serious incident had occurred. We were told that no-one could leave the building until they took the photo of all the participants."
Other delegates took to Twitter to describe what had happened, with one posting: "Thai woman murdered in SECC Congress Centre. Main building closed, we are now spread over other buildings for lectures."