Twenty firefighters and seven appliances were called out to a second-floor laboratory at The King's Buildings, which are part of University of Edinburgh, in Mayfield Road at 11.30am.
A spokeswoman from the fire service said: "There's been a mixture of chemicals which has erupted and injured a member of staff. A male casualty was taken to Edinburgh Royal Infirmary suffering from irritation to their face."
A bottle of chemicals involved in the incident has now been "considered safe" and residual water in the lab is being cleared up, the spokeswoman said.
The King's Buildings are the main campus for the university's College of Science and Engineering and houses seven university schools.
University of Edinburgh has been ranked 39th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2013-14.
A spokesman for University of Edinburgh said the injured man is a student who was conducting an experiment.
"An incident took place at King's Buildings this morning when a student poured benzene bromide into a beaker which he thought was dry. As there was moisture in the beaker, the chemical reacted and splashed the student's face.
"The student had followed all appropriate health and safety procedures and was wearing a lab coat and goggles. First aid was administered at the scene, and the student was then taken to hospital for treatment.
"No other staff or students were placed at risk."