Emergency services were called to the four-storey block of flats at St Catherine's Square in Perth at around 11.25pm last night.
The 26-year-old man had jumped from the window by the time they arrived and was taken to Ninewells Hospital in Dundee for treatment.
A number of people were evacuated from neighbouring flats while firefighters tackled the blaze.
At the height of the incident six fire engines were at the scene, including a high reach appliance.
Fire crews remained at the scene until 2.15am.
The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) and Police Scotland will carry out a joint investigation into the blaze.
SFRS incident commander Billy McLintock said: "I would like to give my thanks to the firefighters and partner agencies for their swift and effective actions which undoubtedly brought this serious fire to a safe conclusion."
He urged people to ensure they have a working smoke alarm fitted in their homes and to contact free phone number 0800 073 1999 of their local fire station for fire safety advice or a home fire safety visit.