They say the foods may have to come off the menu if greenhouse gas emissions from energy use and cars fail to prevent global temperatures continuing to rise.
Chalmers University in Gothenburg claims agriculture emissions must be slashed if the planet is to limit any rise in global temperature to a maximum of 2ÚC by 2070.
The study says this can only be achieved by cutting meat and dairy consumption, despite rapidly growing demand for the products.
It adds that without such action, nitrous oxide emissions from fields and methane from livestock may even double.
Lead scientist Dr Fredrik Hedenus said: "We have shown that reducing meat and dairy consumption is key to bringing agricultural climate pollution down to safe levels. Broad dietary change can take a long time. We should already be thinking about how we can make our food more climate friendly."